Background

Serious games (games for purposes other than entertainment [1]), as well as persuasive games (games for promoting desirable behavior without coercion [2]) are increasingly adopted by scholars and have also found their way into industry. Elements of games are also increasingly used to design gameful interactions (this is also referred to as gamification [3,4]). Serious and persuasive approaches focus on imparting knowledge and raising awareness about a topic or an issue, but also on attitude or behavior change in a desirable direction, for example towards a more healthy lifestyle [5].

In an era where we are used to highly individualized, personal and ubiquitous interactions and with the possibility to collect an enormous amount of information about people’s behaviors, habits and attitudes in our devices and our environments, personalization has increased much in significance since it became a topic in Human-Computer Interaction [6]. As of right now, we do not only have advanced opportunities to personalize serious and persuasive games and gameful interactions, we have also scientific evidence that this is highly useful. Studies show that these technologies are more effective in educating users about certain topics and in supporting them in behavioral and attitudinal change, as well as in raising awareness and engaging them in specific topics, when they are personalized in contrast to employing a one-size-fits-all approach. For example, the efficacy of personalization has been shown in personality-targeted user interface design [7], persuasive technology [8,9] and games [5,10,11,].

Personalization has been investigated along several dimensions, such as personality [7], cognitive abilities [12], gender [13], persuadability (the susceptibility to persuasive strategies, [14]) as well as player types [5], gamification user types [15,16] and behavior [8].

Although personalization of serious and persuasive games and gameful interactions is a vibrant and highly promising area and has become an increasingly researched field, many aspects of it are underexplored. Recent advances of the field show new evidence of the value of using personality factors for tailoring gamification [16,17], first empirical data [18] and experiments [19], suggestions of new player archetypes as personalization dimensions [20], investigations on the validity of existing type models [21], and discussions of the value of personalization [22].

There is common understanding on the importance of personalization itself, but also an ongoing debate and a growing number of research on the approaches used for personalization: Will we use subjective or objective variables for personalization [8]? Will we use continuous (such as traits [17]) or categorical (such as types [23]) dimensions? Will we personalize according to specific interactions (e.g. game dynamics [24]) or ends of the interaction (e.g. different goals)? Will we rely on an a priori personalization or will we be able to personalize in real-time? With the proposed workshop we aim to discuss and advance these questions with the specialized audience targeted by the UMAP conference.

References

  1. Tarja Susi, Mikael Johannesson, and Per Backlund. 2007. Serious games – An overview.
  2. Ian Bogost. 2007. Persuasive games: The expressive power of videogames. Mit Press.
  3. Sebastian Deterding, Rilla Khaled, Lennart Nacke, and Dan Dixon. 2011. Gamification: toward a definition. Chi 2011, 12–15.
  4. Juho Hamari, Jonna Koivisto, and Harri Sarsa. 2014. Does Gamification Work? — A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification. 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE, 3025–3034.
  5. Rita Orji, Regan L. Mandryk, Julita Vassileva, and Kathrin M. Gerling. 2013. Tailoring persuasive health games to gamer type. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM Press, 2467–2476.
  6. D. Egan. 1988. Individual differences in human-computer interaction. In Handbook of Human-computer Interaction, M. Helander (ed.). Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 543–568.
  7. Oded Nov and O Arazy. 2013. Personality-targeted design: theory, experimental procedure, and preliminary results. CHI: 977–983.
  8. Maurits Kaptein, Panos Markopoulos, Boris de Ruyter, and Emile Aarts. 2015. Personalizing Persuasive Technologies: Explicit and Implicit Personalization using Persuasion Profiles. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 77: 38–51.
  9. Maurits Kaptein, Boris De Ruyter, Panos Markopoulos, and Emile Aarts. 2012. Adaptive Persuasive Systems: A Study of Tailored Persuasive Text Messages to Reduce Snacking. ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems.
  10. Sander Bakkes, Chek Tien Tan, and Yusuf Pisan. 2012. Personalised gaming. Proceedings of The 8th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment Playing the System – IE ’12: 1–10.
  11. Thomas M. Connolly, Elizabeth a. Boyle, Ewan MacArthur, Thomas Hainey, and James M. Boyle. 2012. A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Computers & Education 59, 2: 661–686.
  12. Michael Crabb. 2013. Human cognitive measurement as a metric within usability studies. CHI Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems on: 2677.
  13. Rita Orji, Regan L Mandryk, and Julita Vassileva. 2014. Gender and Persuasive Technology : Examining the Persuasiveness of Persuasive Strategies by Gender Groups. Persuasive: 48–52.
  14. Maurits Kaptein. 2012. Personalized persuasion in Ambient Intelligence. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments.
  15. Andrzej Marczewski. 2015. User Types. In Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play: Gamification, Game Thinking and Motivational Design. CreateSpace Independent Publishing (2015), 65–80.
  16. Gustavo F. Tondello, Rina R. Wehbe, Lisa Diamond, Marc Busch, Andrzej Marczewski, and Lennart E. Nacke. 2016. The Gamification User Types Hexad Scale. Proceedings of the 2016 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play – CHI PLAY ’16, ACM.
  17. Yuan Jia, Bin Xu, Yamini Karanam, and Stephen Voida. 2016. Personality-targeted Gamification: A Survey Study on Personality Traits and Motivational Affordances. Proceedings of the 34th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI ’16. Website: https://personalizedpersuasion.wordpress.com
  18. Marc Busch, Elke Mattheiss, Rita Orji, Peter Fröhlich, Michael Lankes, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2016. Player Type Models – Towards Empirical Validation. Extended Abstract Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
  19. Marc Busch, Elke Mattheiss, Wolfgang Hochleitner, et al. 2016. Using Player Type Models for Personalized Game Design – An Empirical Investigation. International Journal on Interaction Design & Architecture(s) Accepted for Publication.
  20. Chen Si, Yusuf Pisan, and Chek Tien Tan. 2016. Understanding players’ map exploration styles. Proceedings of the Australasian Computer Science Week Multiconference on – ACSW ’16, ACM Press, 1–6.
  21. Gabriel Barata, Sandra Gama, Joaquim Jorge, and Daniel Goncalves. 2016. Early Prediction of Student Profiles based on Performance and Gaming Preferences. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies: 1–1
  22. Elke Mattheiss, David Sellitsch, Marc Busch, Wolfgang Hochleitner, Josef Froschauer, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2016. Missing the Forest for the Trees: Balancing Personalization Costs and Benefits in Persuasive Games. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Personalization in Persuasive Technology co-located with the 11th International Conference on Persuasive Technology (PT 2016).
  23. Lennart Nacke, Chris Bateman, and Regan Mandryk. 2014. BrainHex: A neurobiological gamer typology survey. Entertainment Computing 5, 1: 55–62.
  24. Michael Lankes, Wolfgang Hochleitner, Daniel Rammer, Marc Busch, Elke Mattheiss, and Manfred Tscheligi. 2015. From Classes to Mechanics: Player Type Driven Persuasive Game Development. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, ACM, 595–600.